Category Archives: American History

The 1960s was a decade of hope, change, and war that witnessed an important shift in American culture. Citizens from all walks of life sought to expand the meaning of the American promise. Their efforts helped unravel the national consensus and laid bare a far more fragmented society. As a result, men and women from all ethnic groups attempted to reform American society to make it more equitable. The United States also began to take unprecedented steps to exert what it believed to be a positive influence on the world.

Figure 29.1 In Aaron Shikler’s official portrait of John Fitzgerald Kennedy (1970), the president stands with arms folded, apparently deep in thought. The portrait was painted seven years after Kennedy’s death, at the request of his widow, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis. It depicts the president with his head down, because Shikler did not wish to paint the dead man’s eyes.

Chapter Outline 29.1 The Kennedy Promise 29.2 Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society 29.3 The Civil Rights Movement Marches On 29.4 Challenging the Status Quo

Introduction The 1960s was a decade of hope, change, and war that witnessed an important shift in American culture. Citizens from all walks of life sought to expand the meaning of the American promise. Their efforts helped unravel the national consensus and laid bare….

The political divisions that plagued the United States in the 1960s were reflected in the rise of identity politics in the 1970s. As people lost hope of reuniting as a society with common interests and goals, many focused on issues of significance to the subgroups to which they belonged, based on culture, ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender, and religion.

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895 Chapter 30 Political Storms at Home and Abroad, 1968-1980

CHAPTER 30

Political Storms at Home and Abroad, 1968-1980

Figure 30.1 Pop artist Peter Max designed this postage stamp to commemorate Expo ‘74, a world’s fair held in Spokane, Washington. The fair’s theme was the natural environment. Unfortunately, and ironically, gasoline shortages prevented many from attending the exposition.

Chapter Outline 30.1 Identity Politics in a Fractured Society 30.2 Coming Apart, Coming Together 30.3 Vietnam: The Downward Spiral 30.4 Watergate: Nixon’s Domestic Nightmare 30.5 Jimmy Carter in the Aftermath of the Storm

Introduction From May 4 to November 4, 1974, a universal exposition was held in the city of Spokane, Washington. This world’s fair, Expo ‘74, and the postage stamp issued to commemorate it, reflected….

The wartime alliance of the Soviet Union, the United States, and Great Britain was the result of confronting a common enemy they feared more than they distrusted each other. Once the common foe was vanquished, the underlying hostility surfaced quickly as the Soviet Union moved to expand its borders

Module 4: The Cold War

The wartime alliance of the Soviet Union, the United States, and Great Britain was the result of confronting a common enemy they feared more than they distrusted each other. Once the common foe was vanquished, the underlying hostility surfaced quickly as the Soviet Union moved to expand its borders. In March 1946, Britain’s Winston Churchill would proclaim that an “iron curtain” had fallen across Europe, separating east and west. Although the curtain was merely symbolic, it would effectively divide the world into two camps until early 1989, when the most visible embodiment of that iron curtain—the Berlin Wall—was dismantled, signaling the end of the Cold War.

I. The Cold War Begins

II. Baby Boom in Suburbia

III. The Elvis Era

IV. Fighting Communism at Home

….

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

The Second American Revolution

The Struggle for Civil Rights,

and after

The Law:

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Amendment 15 United States Constitution Ratified February 2, 1870

Bloody Sunday

March 7, 1965, Selma, Alabama A defining moment in a larger movement

Bloody Sunday

Selma, Alabama Planned march from Selma to Montgomery, AL (the state capitol) Edmund Pettus Bridge, around 600 marchers turned back by force Batons/Billy Clubs, Tear gas, Mass force Dallas County Sheriff, Jim Clark SNCC chairman, John Lewis, beaten, whipped, tear-gassed by Clark All of this is live, on TV – CBS, NBC, ABC = in your….

The discovery of America caused the appearance of the first worldwide trade market that ferocious global competitors sought to take control of. The globalization ultimately established Europe as the leader commanding huge territories consequently making them discover the path to the “New world” in the U.S resulting in the modern imperialism.

The discovery of America caused the appearance of the first worldwide trade market that ferocious global competitors sought to take control of. The globalization ultimately established Europe as the leader commanding huge territories consequently making them discover the path to the “New world” in the U.S resulting in the modern imperialism.

INTRODUCTION

There was no avoidance on Adam Smith’s part to notice the price paid by the native population of the New World, which bore the brunt of an emotional decline in population because of battles of victory, plagues, and the abuse of their labor (Ichijo, 2004). Gains for a limited number, as Adam noted, ran as one with terrible calamities for many others, a proper dialogue about the extensive experience between the New and….

Franklin Roosevelt was part of the political establishment and the wealthy elite, but in the 1932 presidential campaign, he did not want to be perceived that way. Roosevelt felt that the country needed sweeping change, and he ran a campaign intended to convince the American people that he could deliver that change. It was not the specifics of his campaign promises that were different; in fact, he gave very few details and likely did not yet have a clear idea of how he would raise the country out of the Great Depression. But he campaigned tirelessly, talking to thousands of people, appearing at his party’s national convention, and striving to show the public that he was a different breed of politician. As Hoover grew more morose and physically unwell in the face of the campaign, Roosevelt thrived. He was elected in a landslide by a country ready for the change he had promised.

Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal, 1932-1941

Figure 26.1 President Roosevelt’s Federal One Project allowed thousands of artists to create public art. This initiative was a response to the Great Depression as part of the Works Project Administration, and much of the public art in cities today date from this era. New Deal by Charles Wells can be found in the Clarkson S. Fisher Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Trenton, New Jersey. (credit: modification of work by Library of Congress)

Chapter Outline 26.1 The Rise of Franklin Roosevelt 26.2 The First New Deal 26.3 The Second New Deal

Introduction The election of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signaled both immediate relief for the American public as well as a permanent shift in the role of the federal government….

On December 7, 1941, Japan launched an aerial attack against the U.S. base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, killing or wounding 3,478 Americans. Two battleships, the Arizona and the Oklahoma, were completely destroyed, and six others took heavy damage. The attack was a serious blow to American naval power, but fortunately for the United States, its three largest aircraft carriers were not docked at that time (ibid). In less than a week, Congress approved a formal declaration of war against Japan, with only one vote against. That vote was cast by Montana representative, Jeanette Rankin, a lifelong pacifist who had also voted against World War I. Rankin noted that she, as a woman, could not be sent to war, and she therefore refused to send anyone else (Cott 1993, 298). Within days, Germany and Italy declared war on the United States, in accordance with the terms of their alliance with Japan. (Click on the thumbnail NEWSREELS: Pearl Harbor.)

 The Rise of Fascism

The end of World War I left Europe in shambles. Almost an entire generation of young men were either killed or disabled by the war, and the economy, which was just beginning to recover, suffered another hit during the global depression of the 1930s. Comparatively speaking, the United States fared much better than most countries because of profits from manufacturing and arms sales during the war and, in terms of casualties, because of the fact that we entered the war much later. There was, however, a general consensus in the country that World War I had not been our fight to begin with. Wilson’s failure, following the war, to convince the Senate to ratify the Treaty of Versailles, which included U.S. participation in the….

The year 1920 saw the achievement of two goals that American women had worked toward for decades—the right to vote and the prohibition of alcohol. The Eighteenth Amendment, or Prohibition, made it into the Constitution a few months before women’s suffrage, but the two were closely linked. In fact, many suffragists believed that the assumption that women voters would urge the government to ban alcohol was one reason that the vote had been denied to them for so long, and the liquor industry had been a major source of funding for the antisuffrage movement. The Volstead Act, passed by Congress in 1920, was designed to enforce the Eighteenth Amendment and outlawed the manufacture and sale of any beverage with an alcoholic content of more than 0.5 percent (Lender and Martin 1987, 130–31).

When Americans think of the 1920s, the first images that come to mind are flappers, gangsters, and speakeasies. What is often hidden, however, is the great culture war that lurked beneath the surface. This was, in the words of writer F. Scott Fitzgerald, “the Jazz Age,” but for many rural Americans, change was unwelcome. Race, sexual morality, prohibition of alcohol, evolution, women’s place in society, and religious fundamentalism were all hot-button issues in this era, and the dividing lines were generally between those who lived in rural areas and those who lived in the cities.

The conflict between rural tradition and modern beliefs was at center stage in the Scopes trial, where Clarence Darrow and William Jennings Bryan debated whether evolution could be taught in public schools….

A survey of 36,000 Americans in 1999 ranked the beginning of World War I as the fifteenth most significant event of the twentieth century. The panel of journalists that helped to create the list on which the survey was based put it only a bit higher on the list, ranking it at number eight (Newton 1999). A good case can be made that the war should be much closer to the top of the list, however. World War I was the catalyst for much of what happened in the remainder of the century. The rise of Communism in Russia, the Great Depression, World War II, the development of atomic weapons, and the cold war are just a few of the events that are, at least in part, attributable to events during and immediately following World War I.

A survey of 36,000 Americans in 1999 ranked the beginning of World War I as the fifteenth most significant event of the twentieth century. The panel of journalists that helped to create the list on which the survey was based put it only a bit higher on the list, ranking it at number eight (Newton 1999). A good case can be made that the war should be much closer to the top of the list, however. World War I was the catalyst for much of what happened in the remainder of the century. The rise of Communism in Russia, the Great Depression, World War II, the development of atomic weapons, and the cold war are just a few of the events that are, at least in part,….

The growth of urban areas after the Civil War was unprecedented. New immigrants flocked to U.S. cities in record numbers and Americans from small towns also headed to the cities in search of better jobs. The population of urban areas nearly tripled in the last three decades of the nineteenth century, with over one-third of the U.S. population living in cities (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1975). The infrastructure of the cities was simply unprepared for such rapid growth and conditions deteriorated. Suburbs emerged as the middle class opted to live outside the city limits—close enough to enjoy the benefits of the city, but away from the squalor and poverty that plagued the densely inhabited areas.

The label “Gilded Age” comes from the title of an 1873 book by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner—The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today. The book is a political satire, depicting a greedy, materialistic society where people aimed to get rich quickly, with little concern for ethical standards. It is not one of Twain’s best-known or most critically acclaimed works, but the title seemed a fitting label for an era of extravagant wealth juxtaposed against extreme poverty, and it stuck.

These last decades of the nineteenth century were marked by explosive growth, in terms of wealth and population. The population of the United States nearly doubled between 1870 and 1900—from an estimated 40 million in the 1870 census to an estimated 76 million at the….