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Statistical analysis enables researchers to organize, interpret, and communicate numeric information. Mathematic skill is not required to grasp statistics—only logical thinking ability is needed. In this book, we underplay computation. We focus on explaining which statistics to use in different situations and on how to understand what statistical results mean.

Statistical analysis enables researchers to organize, interpret, and communicate numeric information. Mathematic skill is not required to grasp statistics—only logical thinking ability is needed. In this book, we underplay computation. We focus on explaining which statistics to use in different situations and on how to understand what statistical results mean.

Statistics can be descriptive or inferential.  Descriptive statistics  are used to describe and synthesize data (e.g., a percentage). When a percentage or other descriptive statistic is calculated from population data, it is called a  parameter . A descriptive index from a sample is a  statistic . Research questions are about parameters, but researchers calculate statistics to estimate them and use  inferential statistics  to make inferences about the population. This chapter discusses descriptive statistics, and  Chapter 17  focuses on inferential statistics. First we discuss levels of measurement because the….

The matchmaker appeared one night out of the dark fourth-floor hallway of the graystone rooming house where Finkle lived, grasping a black, strapped portfolio that had been worn thin with use. Salzman, who had been long in the business, was of slight but dignified build, wearing an old hat, and an overcoat too short and tight for him

The Magic Barrel by Bernard Malamud

Not long ago there lived in uptown New York, in a small, almost meager room, though crowded with books, Leo Finkle, a rabbinical student in the Yeshivah University. Finkle, after six years of study, was to be ordained in June and had been advised by an acquaintance that he might find it easier to win himself a congregation if he were married. Since he had no present prospects of marriage, after two tormented days of turning it over in his mind, he called in Pinye Salzman, a marriage broker whose two-line advertisement he had read in the Forward.

The matchmaker appeared one night out of the dark fourth-floor hallway of the graystone rooming house where Finkle lived, grasping a black, strapped portfolio….

What is argument/arguing? Not a fight!! Argumentative writing – taking a strong personal position on a significant, social, controversial issue, and by the use of evidence and specific strategies, explaining that position, defending that position, responding to counterarguments for that position, and suggesting a solution for that position.

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What is argument/arguing?

Not a fight!!

Argumentative writing – taking a strong personal position on a significant, social, controversial issue, and by the use of evidence and specific strategies, explaining that position, defending that position, responding to counterarguments for that position, and suggesting a solution for that position.

3

Argumentative Writing as a Process

The aim is to produce something that is understandable and persuasive.

Proper paradigm/perspective

Specific evidence

Clear language/definition of terms (recognizing their denotations and connotations)

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Argument – A Process

No unwarranted assumptions

Logos – information

Pathos – emotions

Ethos – ethics

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Know the purpose – to argue/persuade by informing and analyzing.

Know the genre – formal academic essay (MLA format)

Know your audience – varied and general

Know what resources you need

….

Telehealth care was developed to provide home-based monitoring and support for patients with chronic disease. The positive effects on physical outcome have been reported; however, more evidence is required concerning the effects on family caregivers and family function for heart failure patients transitioning from the hospital to home.

Telehealth care was developed to provide home-based monitoring and

support for patients with chronic disease. The positive effects on physical outcome have

been reported; however, more evidence is required concerning the effects on family

caregivers and family function for heart failure patients transitioning from the hospital to

home.

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of nursing-led transitional care combining

discharge plans and telehealth care on family caregiver burden, stress mastery and family

function in family caregivers of heart failure patients compared to those receiving

traditional discharge planning only.

Design: This is a quasi-experimental study design.

Methods: Sixty-three patients with heart failure were assessed for eligibility and invited to

participate in either telehealth care or standard care in a medical centre from May to

October 2010. Three families refused to….

The history of the civil war in the United States has produced many new riches, among which there are three iconic figures, the oil tycoon John Rockefeller and the steel king Andrew Carnegie. This article will introduce the famous banker John Pierpont Morgan referred to as JP Morgan. There are three reasons that cause the success of J.P. Morgan: superior families, audacity, and unique perspective.

The history of the civil war in the United States has produced many new riches, among which there are three iconic figures, the oil tycoon John Rockefeller and the steel king Andrew Carnegie. This article will introduce the famous banker John Pierpont Morgan referred to as JP Morgan. There are three reasons that cause the success of J.P. Morgan: superior families, audacity, and unique perspective.

Firstly, JPMorgan’s success in his early years was due to the family providing him with an excellent education and a prosperous growth environment. For instance, Morgan was born into a wealthy family of American businessmen. J.P. Morgan grew up with his father’s deliberate cultivation. He continued to receive higher education before becoming a young adult and he was proficient in German and French….

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA was formed in 1994 under the presidency of Bill Clinton. NAFTA is a trade agreement between the United States, Canada and Mexico (Schermerhorn & Bachrach, 2015). This was formed to allow the flow of goods, services, workers and investments among these countries.

Hey Michelle.  You are right on target with your assessment of NAFTA. It makes sense to eliminate tariffs between countries in North America in an effort to boost trade. The exploitation of the system is really unfortunate. An example of this is the Chevy Camaro being manufactured at a plant in Ontario, Canada. When automobiles are assembled in Mexico, Canada, etc, the jobs follow and this is unfortunate for the hub cities that depend on those jobs such as Michigan, Austin, Texas, etc. When I bought my Camaros, I was really bummed out find that my American sports cars were assembled outside of the US. The good news is that in 2012 they decided to move production back to the US and the 2015 models have been manufactured in….

determine the preva- lence of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout in emer- gency department nurses throughout the United States and (b) to examine which demographic and work-related components affect the development of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout in this nursing specialty

The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to determine the preva- lence of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout in emer- gency department nurses throughout the United States and (b) to examine which demographic and work-related components affect the development of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout in this nursing specialty. Design and Methods: This was a nonexperimental, descriptive, and pre- dictive study using a self-administered survey. Survey packets including a demographic questionnaire and the Professional Quality of Life Scale version 5 (ProQOL 5) were mailed to 1,000 selected emergency nurses throughout the United States. The ProQOL 5 scale was used to measure the prevalence of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue, and burnout among emergency department nurses. Multiple regression using stepwise solution was employed to determine which variables….

The intervention protocol was assessed by four certified Reiki instructors. The sham therapist, who was trained to move her hands in a specified manner, was selected to resemble the Reiki therapist, but she personally did not believe in the Reiki practice.

Was there adequate statistical power? Did the manner in which the independent variable was operationalized create strong contrasts that enhanced statistical power? Was precision enhanced by controlling confounding variables? If hypotheses were not supported (e.g., a hypothesized relationship was not found), is it possible that statistical conclusion validity was compromised?

· 2. In intervention studies, did the researchers attend to intervention fidelity? For example, were staff adequately trained? Was the implementation of the intervention monitored? Was attention paid to both the delivery and receipt of the intervention?

· 3. What evidence does the report provide that selection biases were eliminated or minimized? What steps were taken to control confounding participant characteristics that could affect the equivalence of groups being compared? Were these steps adequate?

· 4. To….

Because randomization is a signature characteristic of an experiment, participants in a crossover design must be randomly assigned to different orderings of treatments. For example, if a crossover design were used to compare the effects of auditory and tactile stimulation on infant development, some infants would be randomly assigned to receive auditory stimulation first, and others would be assigned to receive tactile stimulation first. When there are three or more conditions to which participants will be exposed, the procedure of counterbalancing can be used to rule out ordering effects. For example, if there were three conditions (A, B, C), participants would be randomly assigned to one of six counterbalanced orderings

Some popular experimental designs are summarized in  Table 9.4 . The second column (schematic diagram) depicts design notation from a classic monograph (Campbell & Stanley, 1963). In this notation, R means random assignment, O represents observations (i.e., data collected on the outcome), and X stands for exposure to the intervention. Each row designates a different group, and time is portrayed moving from left to right. Thus, in Row 2 (a basic pretest–posttest design), the top line represents the group that was randomly assigned (R) to an intervention (X) and from which data were collected prior to (O1) and after (O2) the intervention. The second row is the control group, which differs from the experimental group only by absence of the treatment (no X). (Some entries in the “drawbacks” column of  Table….

the relationship of performance appraisals, socio- cultural issues, affirmative action (AA), and organizational capabilities in managing diversity and equality in the workplace

Abstract: This paper investigates the relationship of performance appraisals, socio- cultural issues, affirmative action (AA), and organizational capabilities in managing diversity and equality in the workplace. Firstly, performance appraisals were found to be a major source of discrimination especially due to raters influence on the actual process. Sociocultural issues had major role as some managers went out of their way in helping their subordinates, especially in paternalistic countries, whereas some left it to workers themselves. AA was laid out to ensure that organizations meet statutory requirements but it often came down to managerial commitments. Finally, this paper found that organizations have to develop capabilities so as to encourage diversity and equality in the workplace.

Subjects: Development Studies; Environment; Social Work; Urban Studies; Economics, Finance, Business & Industry; Social Sciences

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