Category Archives: Business

Acquiring a Global Outlook Cross-national, cross-cultural contexts are inherently complex, so developing the competencies required to join the global elite is neither simple nor quick. Even people born into international, cosmo- politan families and environments must work at it.

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hotheaded yet high- out for Big Food performing manager

Poet Maya Angelou on courage, honesty, and playing solitaire

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Managers with a cross-cultural perspective are in high demand. by Gregory C. Unruh and Ángel Cabrera

%, g ou’ve read about and admired them, V maybe met some of them. You’ve I certainly benefited from their work:

the growing elite of global business- people who are helping to define today’s international commerce. They are creating immense value for their companies and themselves—and, in many cases, making the world a better place.

The group includes top business lead- ers such as Carlos Ghosn, the Brazilian- Lebanese-French CEO of Japanese

automaker Nissan; Medtronic CEO Omar Ishrak, a UK-educated Bangladeshi who has worked in the….

Downstream activities—such as delivering a product for specific consumption circumstances— are increasingly the reason customers choose one brand over another and provide the basis for cus- tomer loyalty. They also now account for a large share of companies’ costs. To put it simply, the center of gravity for most companies has tilted downstream.

Niraj Dawar is a professor of marketing at the Ivey Business School in Ontario. He is the author of Tilt: Shifting Your Strategy from Products to Customers (Harvard Business Review Press, 2013).

When Marketing

Is Strategy

Why you must shift your strategy downstream, from products to customers by Niraj Dawar

consumer, finding herself in a park on a hot summer day, gladly pays two dollars for a chilled can of Coke sold at the point-of-thirst through a vending machine. That 700% price premium is attributable not to a bet- ter or different product but to a more convenient means of obtaining it. What the customer values is this: not having to remember to buy the 24-pack in advance, break out one can and find a place to store….

Credibility establishes that the results of qualitative research are believable and whether it is representative of the participants’ views (Anney, 2014). Credibility is the most important aspect of determining trustworthiness of data and its interpretation (Morrow, 2005). Essentially, the participants of the study are the only ones that decide if the results actually reflect the phenomena being studied and therefore, it is important that participants feel the findings are credible and accurate (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). Transferability refers to the degree to which the results of qualitative research can be generalized and transferred to other contexts or settings (Barnes, Conrad, Demont-Heinrich, Graziano, Kowalski, Neufeld, Zamora, & Palmquist, 2012). While studies often target specific contexts or settings, it could be important to provide explanatory theory for the experiences of other individuals who are in comparable situations (Leung, 2015). There can be no transferability without credibility or rather that “the quality of a research is related to generalizability of the result and thereby to the testing and increasing the validity or trustworthiness of the research”

The two criteria for assessing the quality of qualitative research outlines are validity and reliability (Golafshani, N., 2003). Validity in qualitative research is characterized as the “propriety of the instruments, procedures, and information” (Golafshani, N., 2003). In qualitative research, the substance of reliability for qualitative research lies with consistency (Golafshani, N., 2003). As a public policy and administration candidate, it is essential for me to understand that strategies I develop have both positive and negative effects on a population of people. I have an obligation to the people I serve only to allow those people whom I represent influence policy and change. Ethical issues that arise in research to me our culture and media biases. In this day in age, the media controls the American culture. Before….

Qualitative research often collects data through open-ended face-to-face interviews. For dissertations at Capella it is recommended that such interview are face-to-face and not conducted by the phone or by using Skype unless there is a reason not to conduct the interviews face-to-face. Interviews with participants who are determined to be more than minimal risk must be conducted face-to-face. An exception to this rule is phenomenology and heuristics in which the interviews should be conducted face-to-face. “The more presence, the better the data. Face-to-face interviews are best because all sorts of non-verbal data are also present and can be detected. Skype is next best because there are at least facial expressions as well. With phone there are only verbal manifestations. I would say that anything less than face-to-face would have to be justified. What is the reason that a researcher cannot meet with the participant face-to-face? The impoverished means can be used if the alternative is ‘no data’ but it’s best to have the best data collecting situations whenever possible”

The faculty of the School of Psychology at Capella University require that all dissertation designs meet the highest standards of rigor and consistency. To ensure that dissertations using qualitative designs meet such standards, there are five approaches that the faculty consider appropriate to guide a qualitative inquiry in general psychology. The faculty have chosen these approaches because

· they can be applied to research topics and questions typically studied in psychology;

· they have clear, linear, and rigorous data collection and data analysis procedures;

· they are well-supported in the standard methodology literatures used in our courses;

· they are found in qualitative studies published in many peer-reviewed journals in psychology and human science research; and

· they are presented to learners….

Ethnography is a descriptive research approach designed for in-depth investigation and description of cultures, cultural groups, large organizations and groupings, and their features. Ethnographers immerse themselves in the culture or organization they are studying, becoming a part of the culture in order to learn about it “from the inside out.” Consequently, this approach often requires longer timeframes for data collection, and ethnographers frequently return a number of times to the sites of their investigations to obtain more data. As a result, ethnographic studies typically have long time commitments. However, ethnography can be a fruitful approach, even in shorter periods, for understanding the customs, culture, belief systems, and implicit “rules” of organizations and large groups.

The two remaining types of qualitative research we will cover are ethnography and case study. The following is excerpted from Qualitative Research Approaches in Psychology by William Percy and Kim Kostere (2008).

ETHNOGRAPHY

Ethnography is a descriptive research approach designed for in-depth investigation and description of cultures, cultural groups, large organizations and groupings, and their features. Ethnographers immerse themselves in the culture or organization they are studying, becoming a part of the culture in order to learn about it “from the inside out.” Consequently, this approach often requires longer timeframes for data collection, and ethnographers frequently return a number of times to the sites of their investigations to obtain more data. As a result, ethnographic studies typically have long time commitments. However, ethnography can be a fruitful approach, even in shorter….

Strategy formulation requires an objective analysis of the factors that characterize the company’s strategic situation. There are a number of techniques that can be used to create a quick strategic overview of the company. SWOT analysis is an example of such a technique. SWOT analysis is based on the assumption that an effective strategy derives from a soundit” between the company’s internal resources (Strengths and Weaknesses) and its external situation (Opportunities and Threats). A good fit maximizes the company’s strengths and opportunities and minimizes its weaknesses and threats.

Strategy formulation requires an objective analysis of the factors that characterize the company’s strategic situation. There are a number of techniques that can be used to create a quick strategic overview of the company. SWOT analysis is an example of such a technique. SWOT analysis is based on the assumption that an effective strategy derives from a soundit” between the company’s internal resources (Strengths and Weaknesses) and its external situation (Opportunities and Threats). A good fit maximizes the company’s strengths and opportunities and minimizes its weaknesses and threats.

For example:

PositiveNegativeInternal FactorsStrengths Technological Skills Leading Brands Distribution Channels Customer Loyalty Customer Relationship Production Quality ManagementWeaknesses Absence of important skills Weak Brands Poor Access to Distribution Low Customer Retention Unreliable Product/Service ManagementExternal FactorsOpportunities Untapped Markets Technological advancements Mergers, joint….

The accounting cycle can be defined as process that includes a revolving series of steps to include: recording journal entries, posting those entries into ledger accounts, adjusting journal entries, preparing an adjusted trial balance and financial statements, recording closing entries, preparing post-closing trial balances and record reversing entries.

Define the accounting cycle.

The accounting cycle can be defined as process that includes a revolving series of steps to include: recording journal entries, posting those entries into ledger accounts, adjusting journal entries, preparing an adjusted trial balance and financial statements, recording closing entries, preparing post-closing trial balances and record reversing entries.

Define and differentiate between the purpose of a journal entry, an adjusting entry, and a closing entry.

The purpose of a journal entry is to express the results of a transaction on accounts written in a debits-equal-credits format.

An adjusted entry is made at the end of the accounting period to ensure that revenues are recorded when earned, expenses are recorded when incurred to generate revenue, assets and liabilities are reported to represent probable future benefits/services….

the current and most popular approaches to leadership that has been the focus of much research since the early 1980s is the transformational approach. Transformational leadership is part of the “New Leadership” paradigm (Bryman, 1992), which gives more attention to the charismatic and affective elements of leadership. In a content analysis of articles published in Leadership Quarterly, Lowe and Gardner (2001) found that one third of the research was about transformational or charismatic leadership. Similarly, Antonakis (2012) found that the number of papers and citations in the field has grown at an increasing rate, not only in traditional areas like management and social psychology, but in other disciplines such as nursing, education, and industrial engineering. Bass and Riggio (2006) suggested that transformational leadership’s popularity might be due to its emphasis on intrinsic motivation and follower development, which fits the needs of today’s work groups, who want to be inspired and empowered to succeed in times of uncertainty. Clearly, many scholars are studying transformational leadership, and it occupies a central place in leadership research.

One of the current and most popular approaches to leadership that has been the focus of much research since the early 1980s is the transformational approach. Transformational leadership is part of the “New Leadership” paradigm (Bryman, 1992), which gives more attention to the charismatic and affective elements of leadership. In a content analysis of articles published in Leadership Quarterly, Lowe and Gardner (2001) found that one third of the research was about transformational or charismatic leadership. Similarly, Antonakis (2012) found that the number of papers and citations in the field has grown at an increasing rate, not only in traditional areas like management and social psychology, but in other disciplines such as nursing, education, and industrial engineering. Bass and Riggio (2006) suggested that transformational leadership’s popularity might be due to….

MaritzCX offers customer experience management for big businesses. You deserve customer experience (CX) programs that drive high value and high return. We help you achieve increased customer retention and lifetime value through our software platform integrated with our research services and best practices.” The company is remarkable in their adage that no one size fits all approach. They span the globe and cover over 10 major industries like Travel, Automotive, Hospitality and Energy to name a few. The company literally goes from Torrance California to Australia to Hamburg Germany to China making it a truly global company.

According to their website “MaritzCX offers customer experience management for big businesses. You deserve customer experience (CX) programs that drive high value and high return. We help you achieve increased customer retention and lifetime value through our software platform integrated with our research services and best practices.”

The company is remarkable in their adage that no one size fits all approach. They span the globe and cover over 10 major industries like Travel, Automotive, Hospitality and Energy to name a few. The company literally goes from Torrance California to Australia to Hamburg Germany to China making it a truly global company.

http://lrwonline.com/ (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Lieberman Research Worldwide’s tagline is focused on Impact and their “so what” marketing philosophy. According to their About….

the Council on Foreign Relations is an independent, national member- ship organization and a nonpartisan center for scholars dedicated to producing and dis- seminating ideas so that individual and corporate members, as well as policymakers, journalists, students, and interested citizens in the United States and other countries, can better understand the world and the foreign policy choices facing the United States and other governments. The Council does this by convening meetings; conducting a wide-rang- ing Studies Program; publishing Foreign Affairs, the preeminent journal covering inter- national affairs and U.S. foreign policy; maintaining a diverse membership; sponsoring Independent Task Forces; and providing up-to-date information about the world and U.S. foreign policy on the Council’s website, www.cfr.org.

COUNCIL ON FOREIGN RELATIONS

Sponsored by the Maurice R. Greenberg Center for Geoeconomic Studies

Founded in 1921, the Council on Foreign Relations is an independent, national member- ship organization and a nonpartisan center for scholars dedicated to producing and dis- seminating ideas so that individual and corporate members, as well as policymakers, journalists, students, and interested citizens in the United States and other countries, can better understand the world and the foreign policy choices facing the United States and other governments. The Council does this by convening meetings; conducting a wide-rang- ing Studies Program; publishing Foreign Affairs, the preeminent journal covering inter- national affairs and U.S. foreign policy; maintaining a diverse membership; sponsoring Independent Task Forces; and providing up-to-date information about the world and U.S. foreign policy on….