According to E’mile Durkheim, crime as a function of society is: a) abnormal and unnecessary. b) normal and necessary. c) behavior that draws upon penal repression. d) cyclic.

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS Answer ALL Questions in this section (by selecting one (1) choice per question) in order to be eligible to receive full Credit


1. Which of the following does not describe a type of Collective Behavior in the gang? a) Circular Movement. b) Linear Movement. c) Combative Movement. d) Non-Dispersive Movement.


2. Selection and tutelage are the two (2) necessary elements in the process of acquiring recognition as a professional thief. Selection and tutelage are: a) differentially associated. b) continuous processes. c) recognized as a status. d) a system of values/esprit de corps.


3. In the “Comparison Among Juvenile Court Series” conducted by Shaw and McKay, all of the following methods were employed to determine the extent to which the variations in rates of delinquents in the several time series corresponded, except: a) comparisons by zones. b) area comparisons and correlations. c) the cause and effect of the central business district. d) extent of concentration.


4. The FBI Index of Reported Crime classifies which of the seven (7) offenses as “serious crimes”: a) homicide, forcible rape, criminal sexual act (sodomy), robbery, aggravated assault, auto theft, and kidnapping. b) homicide, forcible rape, kidnapping, criminal sexual act (sodomy), burglary, larceny, and aggravated assault. c) homicide, criminal sexual act (sodomy), robbery, burglary, auto theft, aggravated assault, and coercion. d) homicide, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, and auto theft.


5. Wolfgang, Sellin, and Figlio based on their “Birth Cohort” study estimated the percent (%) of hard-core repeaters (chronic offenders) is: a) 7. b) 16. c) 6. d) 25.


6. Cohen and Felson (Routine Activity Theorists) argue that structural changes in routine activity patterns can influence crime rates by affecting the convergence in space and time of which of the following three (3) minimal elements of direct-contact predatory violations: a) motivated offenders, suitable targets, and the absence of capable guardians. b) motivated offenders, inhibited targets, and the absence of capable guardians. c) extraverted offenders, motivated targets, and the presence of capable guardians. d) inhibited offenders, introverted targets, and the presence of capable guardians.


7. In the essay by Brantingham and Brantingham, they suggest that, “environmental criminologists ask how the fourth dimension of crime interacts with the other three dimensions to produce criminal events”. What “fourth dimension” and the “other three dimensions” are they referring to? a) law with place, offender, and target. b) place with law, offender, and target. c) offender with target, place, and law. d) target with law, offender, and place.


8. Social bonds to which of the following groups of adult institutions exert a powerful influence on adult crime and deviance? a) work, education, family, and lifestyle. b) economic, educational, employment, and family domain. c) social, economical, and political. d) social, economical, psychological, and physiological.


9. In Jack Katz’s essay on the “Seductions of Crime”, he argues that central to experiences in deviance include an array of moral emotions. Which one of the following moral emotions turns into rage in an impassioned assailant? a) humiliation. b) vengeance. c) arrogance. d) defilement (evil).


10. According to Jeremy Bentham, a philosopher of the “classical school” of criminology, nature places mankind under the governance of which of the two (2) sovereign masters? a) turmoil and peace. b) chaos and calmness. c) pain and pleasure. d) hate and love.


11. The rational choice models of crime follow which view in explaining criminality? a) non-deterministic. b) deterministic. c) dispositional characteristics. d) non-ecological.


12. According to E’mile Durkheim, crime as a function of society is: a) abnormal and unnecessary. b) normal and necessary. c) behavior that draws upon penal repression. d) cyclic.


13. The criminal justice system in a capitalist society was developed for all of the following reasons, except: a) as a response to the contradictions of late capitalism. b) to serve more explicitly in not controlling that which cannot be remedied by available employment or social services. c) as an euphemism (substitute) for controlling class struggle and administering legal repression. d) as an expansion to cope as a last resort with the problems of surplus population.


14. The Lombroso family’s philosophy is founded upon the Modern, or Positive School of Penal Jurisprudence. This school of thought follows that: a) the antisocial tendencies of criminals are the result of their physical and psychic organizations. b) the assumption that all criminals are endowed with intelligence and feelings like normal individuals, and that they commit misdeeds consciously. c) the offense alone is considered, and on it the whole existing penal system has been founded. d) the antisocial tendencies of criminals are the result of their conscious thought and their individual decision-making process.


15. According to the study conducted by Richard Dugdale, which consisted of investigating the family lineage of the “Jukes”, his observation discloses that the main branches of influential generational social phenomena are: a) historical and education. b) biological and consanguineous. c) sociological and tautological. d) heredity and environmental.


16. The research conducted by Goddard regarding the correlation of “feeble-mindedness” to criminal tendencies, revealed that a strong preponderance (positive correlation) existed in which of the following: a) the Probably Hereditary Group. b) the Accident Group. c) the Hereditary Group. d) the Neuropathic Group.


17. In the essay, “The Individual Delinquent”, William Healy argues that the key to causative factors of delinquency can be found in the delinquent’s: a) social background. b) biological background. c) mental content. d) environmental content.


18. The “Biosocial Criminology” model proposed by Jeffery is premised upon: a) a reactive approach. b) a responsive approach. c) a non-environmental approach. d) a preventive approach.


19. All human behavior is shaped by primary and secondary reinforcers. Primary and secondary reinforcers are defined as follows: a) primary reinforcers are derived from the initial experience of the actual reinforcer, and secondary reinforcers are derived from subsequent experiences with the actual reinforcer. b) primary reinforcers are derived before secondary reinforcers, and secondary reinforcers are derived from subsequent experiences, which were first experienced via primary reinforcers. c) primary reinforcers are derived through hereditary lineage, and secondary reinforcers are derived through experiencing the environment. d) primary reinforcers are derived from an innate drive, and secondary reinforcers are derived from learning.


20. According to E’mile Durkheim, what restricts individual desires that are felt by the individual to be justified in passing assigned limits? a) individual moral consciousness. b) society. c) significant others (i.e. family, friends, school, employment). d) economy.


21. According to Robert Agnew’s theory on “General Strain”, which of the following emotions is considered the most “critical” reaction (for the purposes of the general strain theory): a) anger. b) fear. c) disappointment. d) depression.


22. Delinquency, particularly group delinquency, as discussed in “Differential Systems of Values” by Shaw and McKay, has its roots in: a) the static life of the community. b) the static life of peer groups. c) the dynamic life of the community. d) the dynamic life of delinquent adolescent associations.


23. The delinquent subculture is characterized mostly by which of the following: a) non-utilitarian, malicious, negativistic. b) utilitarian, hostile, aggressive. c) non-utilitarian, intellectually inferior, positivistic. d) utilitarian, authoritative, extractive.


24. Crime and Social Responses in a given society are: a) solely answered by criminological theories. b) developed from the “Good vs. Bad” perspective. c) reinforcing places in society. d) sustaining human existence.


25. The financial loss from white-collar crime, great as it is, is less important than the damage to social relations. White-collar crime: a) violates trust. b) violates distrust. c) increases morale. d) hinders social disorganization.



ESSAY Answer ALL Parts of the Essay in order to be eligible to receive full Credit

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