Daily Archives: December 7, 2021

It has become fashionable to attempt to achieve intelligent behavior in AI systems without using propositional representations. Speculate on what such a system should do when reading a book on South American geography

In considering the distinction between knowledge and belief in this book, we take the view that belief is fundamental and knowledge is simply belief where the outside world happens to be cooperating (the belief is true, is arrived at by appropriate means, is held for the right reasons, and so on). Describe an interpretation of the terms where knowledge is taken to be basic and belief is understood in terms of it.

It has become fashionable to attempt to achieve intelligent behavior in AI systems without using propositional representations. Speculate on what such a system should do when reading a book on South American geography

Consider the following piece of knowledge: Tony, Mike, and John belong to the Alpine Club.

Consider the following piece of knowledge: Tony, Mike, and John belong to the Alpine Club. Every member of the Alpine Club who is not a skier is a mountain climber. Mountain climbers do not like rain, and anyone who does not like snow is not a skier. Mike dislikes whatever Tony likes, and likes whatever Tony dislikes. Tony likes rain and snow. (a) Prove that the given sentences logically entail that there is a member of the Alpine Club who is a mountain climber but not a skier. (b) Suppose we had been told that Mike likes whatever Tony dislikes, but we had not been told that Mike dislikes whatever Tony likes. Prove that the resulting set of sentences no longer logically entails that there is a member….

Donald and Daisy Duck took their nephews, age 4, 5, and 6, on an outing.

Donald and Daisy Duck took their nephews, age 4, 5, and 6, on an outing. Each boy wore a tee-shirt with a different design on it and of a different color. You are also given the following information: ■ Huey is younger than the boy in the green tee-shirt. ■ The 5-year-old wore the tee-shirt with the camel design. ■ Dewey’s tee-shirt was yellow. ■ Louie’s tee-shirt bore the giraffe design. ■ The panda design was not featured on the white tee-shirt. (a) Represent these facts as sentences in FOL. (b) Using your formalization, is it possible to conclude the age of each boy together with the color and design of the tee-shirt he is wearing? Show semantically how you determined your answer. (c) If your answer was….

In most cases, we also would like to return a satisfying interpretation, if one exists.

The general form of Resolution with variables presented here is not complete as it stands, even for deriving the empty clause. In particular, note that the two clauses [P(x), P( y)] and [¬P(u), ¬P(v)] are together unsatisfiable. (a) Argue that the empty clause cannot be derived from these two clauses. A slightly more general rule of Resolution handles cases such as these: Suppose that C1 and C2 are clauses with disjoint atoms. Suppose that there are sets of literals D1 ⊆ C1 and D2 ⊆ C2 and a substitution θ such that D1θ = {ρ} and D2θ = {ρ}. Then, we conclude by Resolution the clause (C1 − D1)θ ∪ (C2 − D2)θ. The form of Resolution considered in the text simply took D1 and D2 to be….

Write, test, and document a program that determines the satisfiability of a set of propositional Horn clauses by forward chaining and that runs in linear time, relative to the size of the input

Write, test, and document a program that determines the satisfiability of a set of propositional Horn clauses by forward chaining and that runs in linear time, relative to the size of the input. Use the following data structures: (a) a global variable STACK containing a list of atoms known to be true, but waiting to be propagated forward; (b) for each clause, an atom CONCLUSION, which is the positive literal appearing in the clause (or NIL if the clause contains only negative literals), and a number REMAINING, which is the number of atoms appearing negatively in the clause that are not yet known to be true; (c) for each atom, a flag VISITED indicating whether or not the atom has been propagated forward, and a list ON-CLAUSES of….

The general form of Resolution with variables presented here is not complete as it stands, even for deriving the empty clause.

The general form of Resolution with variables presented here is not complete as it stands, even for deriving the empty clause. In particular, note that the two clauses [P(x), P( y)] and [¬P(u), ¬P(v)] are together unsatisfiable. (a) Argue that the empty clause cannot be derived from these two clauses. A slightly more general rule of Resolution handles cases such as these: Suppose that C1 and C2 are clauses with disjoint atoms. Suppose that there are sets of literals D1 ⊆ C1 and D2 ⊆ C2 and a substitution θ such that D1θ = {ρ} and D2θ = {ρ}. Then, we conclude by Resolution the clause (C1 − D1)θ ∪ (C2 − D2)θ. The form of Resolution considered in the text simply took D1 and D2 to be….

There are many ways of making negation as failure precise, but one way is as follows

There are many ways of making negation as failure precise, but one way is as follows: We try to find a set of “negative assumptions” we can make, {not(q1), … , not(qn)}, such that if we were to add these to the KB and use ordinary logical reasoning (now treating a not( p) as if it were a new atom unrelated to p), the set of atoms we could not derive would be exactly {q1, … , qn}. More precisely, we define a sequence of sets as follows: N0 = {} Nk+1 = { not(q)| KB ∪ Nk |= q } The reasoning procedure then is this: We calculate the Nk, and if the sequence converges, that is, if Nk+1 = Nk for some k, then we consider….

Consider the following strategy for playing tic-tac-toe: Put your mark in an available square that ranks the highest in the following list of descriptions

Consider the following strategy for playing tic-tac-toe: Put your mark in an available square that ranks the highest in the following list of descriptions: (i) a square that gives you three in a row; (ii) a square that would give your opponent three in a row; (iii) a square that is a double row for you; (iv) a square that would be a double row for your opponent; (v) a center square; (vi) a corner square; (vii) any square. A double row square for a player is an available square that gives the player two in a row on two distinct lines (where the third square of each line is still available, obviously). (a) Encode this strategy as a set of production rules, and state what conflict resolution….

This question concerns computing subtraction using a production system.

This question concerns computing subtraction using a production system. Assume that WM initially contains information to deal with individual digits in the following form: (digitMinus top: n bot: m ans: k borrow: b), where n and m are any digits, and if n ≥ m, then k is n − m and b is 0, else k is 10 + n − m and b is 1. For example, (digitMinus top: 7 bot: 3 ans: 4 borrow: 0) would be in WM, as would (digitMinus top: 3 bot: 7 ans: 6 borrow: 1). The working memory also specifies the first and second arguments of a subtraction problem (the subtrahend and minuend): (topNum pos: i digit: d left: j) and (botNum pos: i digit: d left: j), where d….

Design a set of frames and slots to represent the schedule and any ancillary information needed by the assistant

For either application, the questions are the same: (a) Design a set of frames and slots to represent the schedule and any ancillary information needed by the assistant. (b) For all slots of all frames, write in English pseudocode the IF-ADDED or IF-NEEDED procedures that would appear there. Annotate these procedures with comments explaining why they are there (e.g., what constraints they are enforcing). (c) Briefly explain how your system would work (what procedures would fire and what they would do) on concrete examples of your choosing, illustrating each of the three situations (1, 2, and 3) mentioned in the description of the application.